Luis Enrique's Barca found themselves frustrated for long periods of the game as Getafe held firm at the back and secured a 0-0 draw at home.
La Liga Review: Barcelona stumble, 10-man Valencia win
Barcelona failed to close the gap on La Liga leaders Real Madrid as Valencia and Malaga moved into the European places.
Although the visitors piled on the pressure towards the end, they failed to secure a ninth successive win in all competitions and now sit four points adrift of table-topping Real.
Fresh from beating Paris Saint-Germain 3-1 in the UEFA Champions League in midweek, Barca dominated possession throughout at a wet and windy Coliseum Alfonso Perez and kept Getafe camped in their own half for much of the match on Saturday.
Both sides had penalty shouts turned down in the first half, while Barca came closest to breaking the deadlock when Lionel Messi saw a free-kick come back off the crossbar just after the interval.
Luis Enrique threw men forward in search of a winner, with Messi and Xavi again almost making the crucial breakthrough.
But Barca's best efforts ultimately went unrewarded, as they failed to find a way past a stoic Getafe defence and goalkeeper Vicente Guaita as the hosts claimed a hard-fought point.
Algerian midfielder Sofiane Feghouli netted a first-half brace as 10-man Valencia accounted for Rayo Vallecano 3-0 at the Mestalla.
Feghouli opened the scoring in the 13th minute, glancing a header past Rayo goalkeeper Cristian Alvarez.
It got better for Feghouli in the 34th minute as he bundled the ball over the line from close range following a goalmouth scramble.
Pablo Piatti sealed the points two minutes later when he powered past two defenders and fired the ball underneath Alvarez.
Valencia played the remaining 20 minutes with 10 men after Andre Gomes was sent off for a second bookable offence.
Nuno Espirito Santo's Valencia consolidated fifth spot, moving to within a point of fourth-placed Sevilla, who play on Sunday.
Malaga are a point adrift of Valencia after they saw off Celta Vigo 1-0.
Samu's 21st-minute strike was all that separated the two teams at the Estadio La Rosaleda as Malaga claimed back-to-back wins.
Meanwhile, Cordoba climbed out of the relegation zone courtesy of a goalless draw at home to Levante.