Athletics' governing body has voted overwhelmingly to suspend Russia from the sport for widespread, state-sponsored doping and the ban will include the 2016 Olympics unless the country can demonstrate a major change in their approach and controls.
Russia banned from International athletics over doping
Russia has been banned from international athletics, which could include the Olympics, over alleged widespread doping.
After a three-hour teleconference on Friday, hosted by its president Sebastian Coe, the International Association of Athletics Federations' (IAAF) council voted 22-1 in favour of the sanction, with the Russian representative not able to vote.
The meeting was called to discuss Monday's report by the independent commission of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), which recommended the punishment -- unprecedented for doping offences.
The report alleged "systemic" collusion between Russian athletes and both the country's federation and anti-doping authorities and a "deeply-rooted culture of cheating" that enabled athletes to take performance-enhancing drugs without fear of being tested.
The report recommended suspending the Russian federation until a "new framework" was in place.
"We will get the change we want and only then will Russian athletes return to international competition," Coe told reporters after Friday's call.
"This is not about politics, this is about the protection of clean athletes. I cannot overstate the feeling around the conference call this evening about sending the strongest possible message that we can.
"This has been a shameful wake-up call and we are clear that cheating at any level will not be tolerated.
"But we discussed and agreed that the whole system has failed the athletes, not just in Russia, but around the world."
Asked if Russia would be able to make the required changes in time to return for the Rio de Janeiro Olympics next August, Coe said: "It is entirely up to the Russian federation. Our verification team will be tough and will want to make sure that before there is a re-introduction to the sport for their athletes and the federation those changes have taken place."
Russia will be stripped of hosting the world race walking and world junior championships next year while the first competition to be affected by the ban is the European cross-country championships in France on Dec. 13.
The main athletics events in 2016 are the world Indoor Championships, the European athletics championships and the Olympics.
Russia are one of the superpowers of the sport and finished second behind the United States in the track and field medal count at the 2012 Olympics in London.
"To regain membership to the IAAF the new federation would have to fulfil a list of criteria," Coe said.
"An inspection team will be led by Independent Chair Rune Andersen, an independent international anti-doping expert (Norwegian) and three members of the IAAF Council who will be appointed in the next few days."
Stephanie Hightower, president of US Track and Field and an IAAF council member, said of the "extraordinary" decision: "In light of the evidence, suspension was the only proper course of action... This sends a clear message to clean athletes that protecting them and protecting the sport, with a culture of accountability, is our top priority.
"Although this is a difficult time, in the long term, the sport ultimately will be stronger for it."
The IAAF has previously suspended members, including South Africa during its Apartheid regime, Afghanistan, Vanuatu, Algeria and Gabon, but none of those were drugs-related.
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