Former Team Sky doctor Geert Leinders has been hit with a lifetime ban for numerous doping violations.
Geert Leinders, the former Rabobank chief team doctor and Team Sky freelancer, has been banned for life for possessing, trafficking and administering performance-enhancing drugs.
A decision passed down by the US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) in conjunction with Anti-Doping Denmark, and the Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands following the discovery of evidence by USADA in 2012.
The violations were committed during his 13-year spell as chief doctor and director of Rabobank from 1996 to 2009.
Leinders was employed by Team Sky in a freelance role in 2011 and 2012, although team principal Dave Brailsford has since called his hiring - which was a source of great embarrassment due to their commitment to anti-doping - as a mistake.
A USADA statement read: "After a hearing at which the detailed evidence, including eyewitness testimony, corroborating documentation and an expert analysis of abnormal blood values of cyclists was presented, the independent Arbitration Panel found that Leinders possessed, trafficked, and administered banned performance enhancing substances and methods without any legitimate medical need, including EPO, blood transfusion paraphernalia, testosterone, insulin, DHEA, LH and corticosteroids to athletes under his care, and was complicit in other anti-doping rule violations.
"Under the restrictions of this sanction, Leinders is and will be prohibited from training or advising athletes and participating at any event sanctioned by USA Cycling, the International Cycling Union, or any other WADA [World Anti-Doping Agency] Code signatory."