Two-time champions Brazil made a slow start in Sunday's last-16 encounter and they trailed 21-13 after the first quarter, but they rebounded in style to clinch a comprehensive 85-65 victory.
Behind 21 points and two assists from shooting guard Raulzinho Neto, Brazil ruthlessly swept their South American counterparts aside in the second half in Madrid to march into the latter stages.
Ruben Magnano's men outscored Argentina 24-13 in the third and went even better in the fourth quarter, shooting 28 points to Argentina's 16.
Brazil - for whom Anderson Varejao also impressed with nine rebounds and four assists - can now look forward to a quarter-final date with Serbia, and on this evidence they will take some stopping.
The Serbs had scraped through the group stages but upped their performance in the last 16 to defeat Greece 90-72, Bogdan Bogdanovic stealing the show with 21 points.
Meanwhile, Lithuania made the last eight for the third straight World Cup after holding off a brave fightback from New Zealand in a 76-71 triumph.
Toronto Raptors centre Jonas Valanciunas lead the way for the Europeans with 22 points and 13 rebounds to lead his side to victory.
A first-quarter run helped Lithuania take the initiative and they led 36-26 at half-time.
New Zealand did their best to claw back the deficit and a combination of Isaac Fotu and Corey Webster scored the first nine points of the final quarter to set up a tense finish.
But Valanciunas once more took control of proceedings to guide Jonas Kazlauskas' men to the quarter-finals.
Awaiting them in the last eight are 2010 runners-up Turkey, who scraped past Australia 65-64 in a dramatic finale.
Turkey found themselves 12 points adrift at one stage, while Australia led 64-59 with little over a minute remaining on the clock.
However, veteran Fenerbahce forward Emir Preldzic sank a three-pointer to bring the score within two and, after Australia had committed a shot-clock violation, Preldzic again came up trumps from downtown with just five seconds left on the clock to seal an unlikely triumph.