Balogun is the first signing for the Seagulls in the summer transfer window, and leaves Germany after nine years in the Bundesliga.
The 29-year-old joins on a free transfer and has signed a two-year- deal at the Falmer Stadium.
Speaking to the club’s website on his new signing manager Chris Hughton was full of praise for Balogun.
He said, “I am delighted to welcome Leon to the club. He will add more depth to our defensive options, and I am pleased to get our first piece of business done so early in the summer.
“He is in the peak years of his career and I am sure he will integrate well into the squad. He also has valuable experience, having played in the Bundesliga, the Europa League and at international level.”
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Balogun also told the club’s website that he has been following the Premier League before his switch to Brighton.
He said, “I always had a dream to play in the Premier League, and Brighton was one of the first teams to show an interest in me.
“I’ve been following English football as much as I can in Germany, and I saw how they got promoted from the Championship.
Balogun is part of Nigeria's 30-man provisional squad for the 2018 FIFA World Cup and will join up with his new teammates after the tournament.
Balogun comes to the Premier League with experience having played at Hannover 96, Werder Bremen, Fortuna Düsseldorf, Darmstadt 98 and Mainz 05.