The draw leaves Dortmund third in the league, three points behind leaders Bayern Munich who host second-placed RB Leipzig later Saturday night.
After suffering a shock 2-1 home defeat last weekend against struggling Cologne, Dortmund missed the finishing of top scorer Haaland, who is out until January.
Dortmund's defence was caught napping when they conceded an early goal by Frankfurt's Japan midfielder Daichi Kamada.
The introduction of 16-year-old striker Youssoufa Moukoko after the half-time saw Dortmund raise their tempo.
They equalised with a superb strike from 18-year-old US forward Giovanni Reyna, but failed to again breach the Frankfurt defence despite finishing the stronger.