Police fired shots during the incident, which occurred just a block from the Capitol complex.
Capitol Police communications director Eva Malecki told reporters officers had "observed an erratic and aggressive driver" in the area, and attempted to stop the vehicle.
"The driver negotiated a U-turn and fled the scene nearly striking officers and striking at least one other vehicle," Malecki said. "A brief pursuit followed until the vehicle was stopped."
Police fired shots during the incident, which occurred just a block from the Capitol complex, but no one was injured and the suspect was taken into custody.
"This incident appears to be criminal in nature with no nexus to terrorism," Malecki said, adding that the Capitol complex remains open to the public.
The Metropolitan Police Department earlier said the driver had apparently struck a police cruiser and tried running over several other officers.
The incident occurred in the 100 block of Independence Avenue, just steps from the Rayburn House Office Building, where several members of Congress have their offices.
During fair weather lawmakers often walk outside and cross Independence Avenue from the Rayburn building as they head to the Capitol, and the area on the corner of the Washington Mall is often crowded with tourists.
The Senate and House of Representatives entered into session just minutes after the alleged attack.
The incident occured one week after an assault in London, where a 52-year-old man ploughed through a crowd of pedestrians on Westminster Bridge near parliament in an attack that left four people dead and 50 wounded.
That attacker was shot dead by police.