The ambassador was attacked shortly after giving an opening speech at the event.
The Russian Ambassador to Turkey, Andrey Karlov, has been shot and badly injured in Ankara while attending an art exhibition on Monday, state-broadcaster TRT reported.
The ambassador was attacked shortly after giving an opening speech at the event, TRT said, adding that three shots were fired.
Police have launched an operation in the area.
Russia and Turkey patched up rocky relations over the summer and have recently been working together on the evacuations from Aleppo, despite supporting opposite sides in the Syrian civil war.