Black went 649-713 with the Padres from 2007 until being axed 65 games into the 2015 campaign.
Black, 59, went 649-713 with the Padres, a National League West division rival of the Rockies, from 2007 until being axed 65 games into the 2015 campaign.
"I'm very honored to be the Rockies manager," Black said. "I'm looking forward to it with a great deal of excitement."
Black was named the 2010 NL Manager of the Year after the Padres went 90-72, their winningest campaign since taking 98 games in 1998 and losing to the New York Yankees in the World Series.
Black replaces Walt Weiss, who went 283-365 over four seasons. His contract expired after the Rockies went 75-87 this past season and was not renewed.
Black said his goal is to return to the team to the World Series, which it reached in 2007, losing to the Boston Red Sox.
"I'm excited about this group of players, this franchise and where it is headed," Black said. "I feel I'm in a great spot. Good things are ahead."
Last season, Black served as a special assistant to Los Angeles Angels general manager Billy Eppler. He had been a pitching coach with the Angels from 2000-2006.
Black was a major league pitcher from 1981 to 1995, going 121-116 with a 3.84 earned-run average over 398 appearances, 296 of them as a starter.